Glossary


February 18, 2014
This page contains items of interest relative to the breweries in this work.

48’ers

Germans trying to unite Germany with a democratic form of Government led what is called the German Revolution of 1848. It failed and Germans by the thousands came to America. Although Germans were in America for many years, these immigrants were known as 48’ers.

Amber Beer

Anton Dreher and Gabriel Sedlmayr visitied England in the 1930’s to learn English brewing techniques (technology says Foster). Dornbusch has this as 1933 (page 120) and

Conell has the Viennese developing malt that gives a reddish color (page161).
Foster has Dreher brewing English ale (42).

Dreher made an English pale-ale (using ale yeast) but it was not accepted (Foster 42)

1841 Vienna beer debuts
Dreher switched to Sedlmayr’s lager yeast but bought malt from Moravia.
Sedlmayr retained his yeast but bought Dreher’s malt.
Each brewed the same type of beer in 1841. Dornbusch 120
Developed in 1841, Vienna malt gives a reddish tinge and a sweetish texture but a dry finish. (Jackson, World Guide, 192)

Bottling House

Have you noticed that old breweries had a separate building to bottle beer? That’s because it was once illegal to brew and bottle within the same building.

Bounty Land

The State of Virginia set aside land to soldiers of the French and Indian War. Not called Donation Land but Bounty Land, this land was given for service.

Brooks High License Law

This was a pre-prohibition law regulating the selling of alcohol in America.

Burgess

Simply put, a Burgess was a representative of a borough whether by appointment or election. By an act of the Pennsylvania legislature, Act of May 23, 1961, a burgess was a mayor.

Burton Ale

Developed in Burton, England, this was the name of a style we now call India Pale Ale, or IPA for short. We can find it today as Bass. At the time it would have had more alcohol than Kennett Ale.

Depreciation Land

Land that was appropriated to the redemption of the Depreciation Certificates. During the revolutionary war the Pennsylvania paid her troops in certificates, also known as script. It was a promissory note providing for public land to the soldier. In Allegheny County, this land was north of the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers to a line going from Pine Creek north of Kittanning running west to the Beaver River and established in 1783. It was known as Reserve land. By the time the certificates were redeemed they had devalued. Land north of the depreciation land was known as donation land. The establishment of this “reservation” is partially why Pittsburgh never acquired Allegheny earlier on. For more on this see: Historical Sketch to Land Titles In Western Pennsylvania and The History of Ross Township.

Hopkins
1940 Atlas, Plate 15 has depreciation land boundary lines shown. Adjacent plates show than as well.

Donation Land

Land that was appropriated to the donations to the soldiers of the Pennsylvania line fort heir services in the Revolutionary war. For soldiers who did not have script the state donated land north of the depreciation line.

Drys

There was much debate in America concerning prohibition. Needless to say there were those for and against this. People in favor of prohibition were called the Drys whereas those opposed were the Wets.

Foreign Business/Corporation

Each state is an independent governing body not subject to the laws of other states. A corporation conducting business in one state when incorporated in another is considered a foreign corporation and must qualify as a foreign corporation to legally do business in that state. It also gives the state a means of taxing the business.

Government Cellar

This was the bottling house of old breweries that housed the beer before it was sent to market. Government tax collectors assessed the tax on the beer in this room. See the Government Pipe, below.
The Internal Revenue Act of June 1890 was changed to allow the piping of beer from the storage cellars to the bottling house. A revenue officer had to be present at all times the beer was flowing; not changed until 1933. See
http://www.slahs.org/schlitz/history3.htm

Government Pipe

Beer had to get from the brewery to the government cellar, which was in a separate building. A pipe line was constructed to transport the brew in to the holding tanks. By law, the pipe from the brewery could not make direct contact with the bottling house. The pipe was metered to measure the volume of beer coming in. The tax was figured on this volume and was due even if the beer was lost to spillage or breakage.

Kennett Ale

Kentish Ale was first brewed in Kent, England near the end of the fifteenth century. The name implies it being well hopped and exhibiting a pronounced bitterness.

Kombucha

Fermented Sweet Tea and believed to have originated in China. It is very low in alcohol but high enough to warrant a brewing permit from the state.

Lager Beer Brewing

Beer was the name used to differentiate it from ale. Briefly, beer is associated with the European continent and Germany in particular. Ale is typically identified with English brewers. Emil Hansen of the Carlsburg Brewery developed the first pure strain of lager yeast in Denmark in 1875. He was propagating pure yeast in 1883. See the Historic Pittsburgh page for Lager in Pittsburgh.

Salt Works

Many old maps such as the Hopkins maps made in the 1800’s show salt Works. The word salt for this type of business refers to Potash manufacturers. Potash (a type of salt) is a potassium product and was used in making glass and other products and also for fertilizer.

Steam Brewery

Manufacturers such as the Phoenix Steam Brewery used the word steam in their trade name to show they are a modern manufacturer. Steam was used in the process and to power the equipment. With respect to brewing, steam was used in lieu of direct fire to boil the mash as it reduces cartelization and gives greater overall efficiency.

ZIP Codes

ZIP codes can be used as a aid to date a company by its address.
On July 1, 1963, the Post Office Department implemented the five-digit ZIP Code, which was placed after the state name in the last line of an address. To provide room for the ZIP Code, the Department issued two-letter abbreviations for all states and territories. Publication 59, Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code; issued by the Department in October 1963:
. . . provided by the Post Office Department as an aid to mailers in accommodating ZIP Codes within the usual City-State line of addresses. The abbreviations are based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems. A breakdown of the City-State-ZIP Code line positions is as follows: 13 positions for city, 1 space between city and State designation, 2 positions for State designation, 2 spaces between State designation and ZIP Code, and 5 positions for ZIP Code.