The History of the Duquesne Brewing Company
Includes the History of the Independent Brewing Company


July 27, 2015, Revised November 8, 17 with updates to follow
This document originated at the Independent Brewing Company

In 1889, two brewing companies were formed. The Pittsburgh Brewing Company was a consolidation of a number of individual brewing companies. Several months later the Duquesne Brewing Company incorporated as a stand-along brewery. I do not know the reasoning but Duquesne re-incorporated in 1903 and tried to consolidate a large number of breweries not under the control of Pittsburgh Brewing. This pretty much failed but they tried in once more in 1905 under the company named Independent Brewing. As illustrated in the work,
History of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company, directors at Pittsburgh Brewing created Independent Brewing. I can find no other connection between Pittsburgh and Independent but Duquesne Brewing and Independent were one in the same. Pittsburgh Brewing was formed by people outside of the brewing trade and there was speculation at the time that these people wanted to control the brewing and saloon business in Western Pennsylvania. In looking at the history of the brewing business in this area I can say that this was a plausible plan. Trying to take control of all the breweries at once would not have been feasible and would have caught the eyes of the Federal Government. Taking a step by step approach would have worked and it looked as though it was. But just as this plan was steps away from coming to a close national prohibition was enacted and that was the end of evil empire.

Another theory that could have merit was the fight against the English Syndicate. The syndicate was a group of investors based in London whose purpose it was to buy all or the majority of the major breweries in America. The syndicate did purchase many breweries and several in Pittsburgh were interested. But they were fought off and lost capital and the syndicate dissolved.

This work will explore the history of the Duquesne Brewing Company and the Independent Brewing Company.

Key Dates:
Pittsburgh Brewing Company created: January 1, 1899
Duquesne Brewing Company created: April 4, 1899
Duquesne Brewing Company consolidation: 1903
Independent Brewing Company created: January 7, 1905
Independent Brewing Company dissolves: 1933
Duquesne Brewing Company re-incorporated: 1933
Duquesne Brewing Company dissolves: 1972.

The company was incorporated on January 7, 1905 (date of its charter) but Independent took possession of the breweries on February 10, 1905. Unlike the Pittsburgh Brewing Company, whose breweries were located primarily within the Pittsburgh, the Independent Brewing Company of Pittsburgh's breweries were outside of Pittsburgh and in other counties. The Independent Brewing Company dissolved in 1933.

Some publications give February 1905 as the formation of the company. This has occurred with the formation date of Pittsburgh Brewing Company of 1899 as well. The February date in this case is possibly the date it was published in a newspaper.

The 1903 edition of
American Brewer’s Review, Volume 17 noted the formation of the Duquesne Brewing Company. Duquesne consolidated 15 breweries, which were (partially): D Lutz, American, Hilltop, Chartiers Valley, Elk, Anchor, Anton, Butler and Enderton. The consolidation originally considered 21 breweries.
https://books.google.com/books?id=QUU4AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA254&lpg=PA254&dq=Benz+Brewery+Allegheny&source=bl&ots=b7VVQtOADC&sig=O-8P-X9oZi1wPShGpj58CCdpih8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiakrr3q6zXAhVq6oMKHZgLBi84ChDoAQgsMAE#v=onepage&q&f=false

The Foundation of the Company


American Brewers Review, Volume 19, 1905 reported that IBC took possession of the following 16 breweries on February 10, 1905:
American Brewing of Bennett (Millvale)
Anterton Brewing of Beaver Falls
Anton Brewing of Monongahela City
Butler Brewing of Butler
Charleroi Brewing of Charleroi
D. Lutz & Son of Allegheny
Duquesne Brewery of Pittsburgh
First National Brewing of McKees Rocks (Stowe Township)
Gambrinus Brewing of New Kensington
Highland Brewing of East Liberty (under construction)
Hill Top Brewing of Mt. Oliver
Hoehl Brewing of Millvale
Home Brewing of Braddock
Homestead Brewing of Homestead
Monessen Brewing of Monessen (Rostraver Township)
New Kensington Brewing of New Kensington

Old & New

Marcus Aaron and John D. Nicholson were members of the executive board of Pittsburgh Brewing and promoted the formation of Independent Brewing. Nicholson was on the advisory board of PBC and Aaron was on the executive committee of PBC. It was reported in several publications that the two brewing companies were t have independent officers but operate “harmoniously”.

The
Review of `905 had February 10, 1905 as when the plants were taken over by IBC, but the Review also listed July 1, 1904 as the take-over date. The Review cited Pittsburgh Brewing as the “old company” and Independent Brewing as the “new company”, making the inference that PBC had a financial stake in IBC. The Review also noted that ICB would be ”independent” of PCB, leading one to venture how Independent came to have that name. The securities of each company were exactly the same as the formation of Independent was to merge with Pittsburgh in the near future.

Aaron Family
See Aaron & Co. Malt House, Louis Israel in the North Side page. The Aaron family had connections to the American Malting Company of New York.

Thomas Jefferson Connection
George B. Nicholson was a son of John D. He married Flora Randolph Mason of Fredericksburg, Va. on April 12, 1917 in Washington, DC. They moved to their home at 153 Riverview Avenue, Pittsburgh on the North Side. What is noteworthy of this marriage and residence is that Mrs. Nicholson was the great granddaughter of Thomas Jefferson.

Company Officers


The
American Brewers Review, Volume 17, 1903 reported on the creation of a new brewery consolidation but did not identify it as the Independent. The Review indicated that 21 breweries would form the new concern but did not identify them.
John Benz (of Duquesne Brewing), President
Charles E. Succop, Secretary & Treasurer
James P. Mulvhill, General Manager

The
Brewer’s Journal & Barley, Malt and Hop Trades’ Reporter, Volume 41, published September 1, 1917 reported the new officers for the Independent Brewing Company to be:

WP Hansell, President
James P. Mulvilhil, Vice President and Sales Manager
C. H. Friend Vice President
J. H. Friday, Treasurer
H. C. Baxmeier, Secretary

For reference, the officers of Duquesne were:
Henry Miller (February 6, 1857 – August 19, 1901), President
He was a furniture salesman at 1312 E Carson St
Fredrick N. Stucky
John Benz (d. June 8, 1939 at 87)
Death notice for:
Peter Hermes & Justus Mulert Sr.

I have no information if these two groups of men had a common business interest prior to the forming of Independent, but I find it interesting that one would form a brewing company whereas the other formed a conglomerate. This would be similar to having a company buyout all of Pittsburgh Brewpubs.

The Independent Brewing Company Portfolio

The breweries indicated * were the original 14
The following 17 breweries were active with Independent for the years listed:

1904 – 1920 *Anderton Brewery, Beaver Falls, Beaver Co. (3)---

1904 – 1912 & 1918 – 1920 *Butler Brewing, Butler, Butler Co. (2)---

1905 – 1920 *American, (Bennett), Allegheny Co. (2)
1904 – 1920 Chartiers Valley, Carnegie, Allegheny Co. (1952) (1)
1905 – 1933 *Duquesne, Pittsburgh Allegheny Co. (1972) (1) (2)---
1904 – 1920 *First National, McKees Rocks, Allegheny Co. (1951) (1)---
1904 – 1920 *Hill Top, Mount Oliver, Allegheny Co. (3)---
1904 – 0000 *Hoehl, Millvale, Allegheny Co.
1904 – 1920 *Home Brewery, Braddock, Alleghany Co. (1937) (1) (4)---
1904 – 1920 *Homestead, Homestead, Allegheny Co. (1953) (1) (2)---
1904 – 1909 *Lutz & Son, Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny Co. (5)---
1904 – 1920 Gambrinus, New Kensington, Allegheny Co. (2)---
1904 – 1920 *New Kensington, New Kensington, Allegheny Co. (2)---

1904 – 1920 *Charleroi, Charleroi, Washington Co. (2)---
1904 – 1920 *Globe (Anton), Monongahela, Washington Co. (2)
1905 – 1920 *Monessen, Monessen, Washington Co. (3)---

1904 – 1920 Loyalhanna, Latrobe, Westmoreland Co. (3)
Moody’s Analyses of Investments, Volume 2, 1918, gives April 1907 when Independent acquired Loyalhanna.

The Congressional edition, Volume 6514 of the United States listed 16, which could have been a typo. I can understand the 1904 dates preceding the 1905 merger date but I can find little supporting it.

NOTES for The Independent Brewing Company Portfolio
(1) The date at the end of each of the breweries listed above is the closure date of the brewery after prohibition.

(2) Denotes breweries that continued operating during prohibition producing cereal beverages, as reported in the
Brewers Journal, Volumes 52-53 of 1919.Lutz was not listed in the Journal.

(3) Denotes breweries closed at the onset of prohibition.

(4) Home Brewery under Independent closed in 1902 and re-opened as General Braddock in 1933 as an independent brewery.

(5) Lutz, as the Lion Brewery, North Side, was closed in 1909.

Additional Notes on the above Breweries


American Brewers’ Review, Volume 19, 1905 listed two breweries in New Kensington, which yields 17 breweries. Third-party authors may have taken New Kensington as a single brewery giving 16 breweries to the list.

Anderton Brewery Note
James Anderton came to Beaver Fall in 1867 and built the Spring Water Brewery. His first product was an ale. James and Jonathan Anderton founded the brewery. The name was changed to Anderton Brewing Company in 1891 when John and W.T. Anderton became owners. The brewery became a part of Independent Brewing Company on February 9, 1905.

Anton Brewing Note
The American Brewers Reviews of 1905 (Volume 19) indicated that the Independent Brewing Company bought the Fred M. & Anton Brewing Company of Monongahela in 1899.

Highland Brewing Company
Thomas & Richland Avenues (North-East corner)
Their charter was filed with the Pennsylvania Secretary of State has the corporation enrolled on September 10, 1902.
American Brewers’ Review, Volume 19, 1905 had Highland being partially completed in 1905 and as a branch of the Independent Brewing Co. Prior to the IBC acquisition of the brewery, Highland filed for bankruptcy

Hoehl Brewing
American Brewers’ Review, Volume 19, 1905, listed Hoehl being acquired by Independent.

Loyalhanna Brewery Note
August Schneider was a brewer in Germany and Switzerland. He came to America on May 1, 1880, arriving in Philadelphia. Eventually he came to Millvale and was brewmaster for the Enz Brewing Company. He then founded the American Brewing Company, above. After four years he went to Latrobe along with his partner Philipp Herman, founded Loyalhanna Brewery

US Patent Registrations


The following Trade Marks were filed with the US Patent Office on May 22, 1915, as shown in the
Official Gazette of August 3, 1915:

The company emblem using the letters IBC (Serial No. 86,823) was filed and claimed to have been in use since January 1912.

The image of a man plowing with horses (Serial No. 86,824) was filed and claimed to have been in use since January 1912.

The image of a toy top (Serial No. 86,825) was filed and claimed to have been use since July 1904.

The words and image for SILVER TOP (Serial No. 86,826) was filed and claimed to have been in use since July 1904.

The Common Mistake

It is common to mistake the Independent Brewing Company for the Duquesne Brewery. The Duquesne Brewery, like the others was a part of the family of breweries under the parent company of Independent Brewing. Third parties often interchange the two when citing dates, which is misleading. The main office for Independent was the Duquesne Brewery site on Pittsburgh’s South Side.